There are good people who believe that He did, yet others who believe that He did not.
The first question I would probe, was it fermented or unfermented wine?
Many a times people dispute on this topic on the general term wine, but the state of the wine matters too. So let us delve into the particular scripture that talks about wine.
Astoundingly, the Bible never uses the word “wine” in describing the Lord’s Supper. Describing the Lord’s Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:25-26 Paul said, “25 In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of Me.” 26 For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes. And again in verse 28, “that cup.” In Matthew 26:27 the Bible says, “And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it.” The description in Mark 14:23 says, “And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them.” The same description is given in Luke 22:17: “And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves.” In none of these passages is there a reference to fermented wine. As a matter of fact, there is not even a reference to wine.
In Matthew 26:29 Jesus referred to the drink as “this fruit of the vine.” And it is called the same in Mark 14:25 and Luke 22:18. If the Lord had used fermented wine, it seems He would have made it clear in one of these several passages describing the Lord’s Supper. Instead, God took particular attention to detail not to use any word that could be construed as referring to intoxicating or fermented wine. There is not a single reference in all the Bible to indicate that fermented wine should be used for the Lord’s Supper. Second, fermented wine does not adequately represent the blood of Jesus Christ. The drink used in the Lord’s Supper represents the shed blood of Jesus. In I Corinthians 11:25 the Bible says, After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as often as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. Some argue that fermented wine is pure and that through fermentation the impurities are worked out; thus they argue that wine is more symbolic of the blood of Jesus. But the blood of Jesus was not impure. It had no impurities that needed working out. It was good just as it came from His veins. It needed no doctoring. To change the juice and make it different than it was when it came from the grape is to imply that Jesus’ blood was not sufficient as it was when it came from His veins. Then, too, fermented wine is grape juice in which decay has taken place, and this fermentation is caused by germs. Changing grape juice into fermented wine is the work of bacteria; thus fermented wine would picture tainted blood and not the pure and perfect blood of Jesus Christ. Fermented wine contains alcohol, and alcohol is a narcotic poison and certainly would not picture the blood of Jesus Christ. Jesus used unleavened bread in initiating the Lord’s Supper. Leaven causes the working of bacteria or fungus in food and was forbidden as unsuitable, since the bread was meant to picture the broken body of Christ. If bacteria or fungus was not to be in the bread, then it seems inconsistent that the Lord would use fermented wine when this fermentation is caused by germs. In our opinion, pure grape juice, the fruit of the vine, is a better and a more accurate picture of the blood of the sinless Son of God.
Third, the priests were forbidden to use fermented wines when they entered the holy place in the Old Testament Tabernacle. Leviticus 10:9 says, Do not drink wine or strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: it shall be a statute forever throughout your generations. These priests, entering into the Tabernacle, were prefigure of Jesus, our High Priest. If those who were prefigure of the great High Priest were not to use wine or strong drink, it seems inconceivable to us that Jesus would drink fermented wine or strong drink before going to the crucifixion and entering into His high priestly work. Ezekiel 44:21, speaking of these same priests, says, Neither shall any priest drink wine, when they enter into the inner court. I cannot possibly believe that Jesus would have used fermented or intoxicating wine for the Passover supper or have given that as a type of His blood. We must keep in mind that the Lord Jesus knew the Scriptures. He knew the Bible warnings against wine in Proverbs 20:1 and Proverbs 23:31, 32. It is unthinkable that Jesus would have contradicted and disobeyed these plain commands of the Old Testament. He was very careful throughout His life to see that all the Scriptures were fulfilled.
As we have learned Jesus would not have used unleavened bread and on the other hand use fermented wine therefore the wine was simply fresh grape juice that is unfermented.